Biohazard, or biochemical or biomedical, wastes fall in the section of those irrevocably dangerous substances that must be safely disposed of. Failure to perform so will result in the spewing of rampant diseases in humans, animals, and all the components forming the environment.
Biomedical wastes comprise the infective contaminants, including blood, chemicals like acids, human and animal feces, and predominantly medical wastes that are contagious and toxic.
The dangerous pathogens carried by these wastes can be harmful if released untreated. Even while handling the waste, there are high chances of being infected with the used sharps, needles, and contaminated blood. Therefore, you should duly practise caution while you adopt the following biomedical waste disposal methods:-
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Autoclaving is a method of sterilizing the waste with high-pressure steam by putting the concept of steam from boiling water rises when the pressure does. It inactivates the pathogens residing in the items in the chamber and kills them ultimately.
A determined high-temperature heat is provided to the items for a definite period, depending upon the number of items and the type of items subjected to be sterilized. Autoclaving has been considered one of the most economical and eco-friendly methods to detoxify waste.
This is a similar process to that of the autoclave. However, the presence of shredded waste is mandatory. The plastic can be utilized for plastic items, while sharps can be crushed or milled. Daniels Health sharps disposal is considered one of the most innovative, economical, and clinically proven methods.
Like autoclaves, hydroplaning perform sterilization and killing of the microbes present in the waste products. It is equally cost-effective and amiable to the environment.
Incineration involves the flaming of the waste products in the chamber. While it might harm the environment, it converts waste into energy from the gases produced and even can generate electricity.
Plasma Pyrolysis can be utilized instead of incinerating. Incineration costs both the pocket and the environment, often causing more harm than good. In an absent oxygen environment, the waste products get broken down into non-leachable solids and gases.
At a frequency of 2450 MHz and 12.24 cm of wavelength, the heat supplied to the waste material destroys the microbes residing in it.
At a high temperature of 97 to 100 degrees Celsius, the waste’s water gets rapidly dried and kills the microorganisms.
Post microwaving, the chamber can be cleaned and sanitized well to prevent any chance of infection spread.
The land disposal endeavor incorporates dumping the waste in a secured landfill.
It can only be done when the waste has been entirely detoxified and brought to a landfill after a safe course of storage and transportation. It might not include the entire biomedical waste but prominently subdued parts of it.
The burial site has to be closely supervised so that the guidelines of digging 2 meters deep and enclosing the mouth after 50 cm of soil are followed duly. Avoid any chances of animal approach as well and keep it impermeable.
In this process, the pathogens and the toxicity of the waste get inert or dormant when the debris is mixed with cement and various other silicate-based substances ensuing encapsulation. The inactive waste is then sent away for storage.
This, however, might not be entirely applicable to the entire pile of biomedical waste.
Chemical means of disinfecting the waste involve several substances that can sterilize the toxins in the waste.
It includes manipulation of the ph level, temperature, and vulnerability of the pathogens so that chemicals can be utilized accordingly.
While there are some Phenolic ammonium compounds, no hard and fast rule exists for which chemical to be used. It is mostly based on the type of waste generated and the circumstances.
It is essential to segregate the waste collected according to the type of biomedical waste before the disposal methods are deployed. Also, some of the waste must be treated with chemicals before proceeding with the disposing means. Also, accidental, obsolete, and illegal dumpings cannot be afforded while transporting and storing the waste.
Henceforth, the right waste management and infection control deployers are rare to find who can compile and execute the entire procedure of disposing of biohazard waste with caution by remaining in the budget margins.